of Environment – Chhattisgarh has been prepared by IIT, Bombay under
the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) Ministry of Environment
and Forest (MoEF), Government of India (GOI), New Delhi in
consultation with Environmental Protection Training and Research
Institute (EPTRI), Hyderabad, a National Host Institution, to assist
the local government. Pressure, State, Impact, Response (PSIR)
methodology, an internationally recognized method has been adopted to
study the pressure on the state of environment by different sectors.
The report contains twelve chapters which deal with various sectors
including geography and demography, agriculture and allied sectors,
water resources, forests and biodiversity, tribal development, energy
and power, industries and growth, urban development, transportation
and tourism, mining and health. Pressures caused by the sectoral
development on environment, the present state of environment, impact
of environment due to the altered state of environment and the
responses of the society and the government in terms of its policies
are discussed in detail in each of these sectors. A brief summary of
the report is presented below.
The Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act-2000” paved the way for
the creation of Chhattisgarh on 25 th August 2000. The State of Madhya
Pradesh was bifurcated into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh on the
First day of November 2000 by the Government of India. The State of
Chhattisgarh lies between 17 º46-24º 8 N
latitude and 80º 15-84º24
E longtitude. The State measures 640 km from North to South and 336 km
from East to West with a total area of 1,35,194 sq.km. Jagdalpur is
the largest district (17016.40 Sq.Km) while Kawardha is the smallest
district (3958.01 Sq.Km.) in area
use in the State portrays a dismal picture. Some pressures of
inequality of land distribution on environment are excessive grazing
pressure caused due to increase in permanent pastures leading to
disturbance in succession. Morover, barren and uncultivated area is on
the higher percent, which leads to the dumping and accumulation of
wastes, hence creating an additional pressure on environment. The
present area of 1.3 lakh sq.km for a population of 12 million, makes
available 1.07 ha of land per capita. It needs to be noted that only
46% of land is available for cultivation, and only 0.5 ha per capita
land is used for various types of agricultural activities including
cultivation of food grains, oilseeds, pulses, cash crops, fodder etc.
which is barely sufficient for sustenance and speaks about the immense
pressure of the population. Even under these
adverse conditions, unfortunately 2% is put as cultivable waste
land, and another 2% is left as current fallow.
average rainfall in Chhattisgarh compares well with several other
states. However, the neglect of traditional water preservation
practices in recent times has led to frequent droughts. This has
caused a great pressure on agriculture of the State. Further, the
proportion of irrigated area in the State is only 16 percent of the
total cultivable area. The soil of the region is deficient in
important mineral nutrients like calcium and magnesium, nitrogen,
phosphorus, lime and potash, which is concentrated in the lower parts
of the soil layer. About 17.61 per cent of the State has very high
soil drainage due to presence of coarse soil and highly undulating
terrain with fairly high slope. Inadequate rains in the State has
caused a pressure for fodder to most of the livestock and water during
drought periods. Fodder availability in the State is also affected by
dwindling forests, declining pastures and grass lands and conversion
of grazing fields to cash lands. The present reservoir productivity is
quite low and the aquatic ecosystem in the State is under severe
pressure due to lack of essential nutrients, which govern the increase
in the productivity of aquatic species. Lack of nutrient cycling has
decreased the productivity of aquatic species and hence has affected
the pristine aquatic resources of the State. Main pressure for
horticulture is the inadequate availability of soil in the State.
About 20% soil of the cultivated area in the region is red-laterite (Bhata)
soil, which is mostly unutilized for growing any crop. Soil has to be
treated before it can be put for horticulture development, thus
imposing additional pressure to existing soil resources. Pressures to
horticulture also arise from the excessive usage of insecticides and
is known as the "rice bowl" of Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh
used to produce over seventy percent of the total paddy production in
the country. Apart from paddy, cereals like maize, kodo-kutki and
other small millets, pulses like tur and kulthi and oilseeds like
groundnut, soyabean, niger and sunflower are also grown. Livestock
sector in the State is mainly contributed by cattle, bovines, sheep,
and goats. Bovines contribute to the maximum population of livestock
in the State. Raipur district tops in the bovine population, with Durg
and Ambikapur taking the second and third position
respectively. Among small ruminants, goats dominate in their
population followed by sheep and poultry. Bilaspur and Raipur
districts possess the highest population of ruminants in the State.
There are 1467 irrigation reservoirs (80760 ha.) and 45,250 village
ponds and tanks, (63498 ha.) thus contributing a total of 1,44,258 ha.
available for fish culture in the newly formed state. The present
production of fish in the state is approximately 96,660 tonnes;
however, it has the potential to increase upto 1,45,000 tonnes i.e. an
increase of 50% over a period of five years proposed in 10th
five year plan of 1,45,000 metric tones. The climate in the State is
ideally suited for promoting horticulture on large scale. Banana
cultivation is practiced in the districts Raipur, Dhamtari, Mahasamund,
Durg, Rajnandgoan, Bilaspur, Janjgir Champa, Korba, Surguja, Bastar,
Kanker and Dantewada. Papaya is being cultivated in the districts of
Raipur, Dhamtari, Mahasamund, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Bilaspur, Korba and
Janjgir. Grapes cultivation is being carried out in the districts of
Raipur, Rajnandgaon, and Durg.
State government has accorded top priority to agriculture and promotes
sustainable agriculture in the State, which has minimum impacts on the
environment. Khet Ganga is an irrigation scheme promoted by government
for rain shadow regions which is meant for sustainable utilization of
ground water resources. Gaon Ganga scheme was launched on 19 November,
2000 for sustainable response to the problem of recurring drought and
scarcity of water by creating a Ganges (Ganga) in every village and
habitat. Initiatives by the State government towards an environmental
friendly aquaculture are development of waterlogged areas, and productive
utilization of inland saline/alkaline waters for aquaculture. Fruit
development is encouraged through bank loan and through self finance.
Fruit training centre has been established at Raipur. Gardener
training centre has been set up at Bilaspur, Raipur, Ambikapur, and
Bastar. Chhattisgarh has initiated and established “Integrated
Livestock Development Centres” (ILDC) with the financial assistance
from Rural Development Department of the State in November 1997. After
establishment it has covered 33 blocks of 11 district of the State and
established 170 ILDC’s. Each ILDC cell will have duration of five
State has sufficient water resources and a large untapped potential.
The main pressures facing this sector include the low utilization of
developed water resources, inequitable development of resources, low
coverage of urban water supply, low operation and maintenance budget,
thin spread of resources, low recovery rate and tarrif.
water inflow into the State is through four major interstate rivers-Ganga,
Mahanadi, Godavari, and Narmada. The river waters are utilized for
irrigation, urban water supply and aquaculture. The
estimated surface water available for use is around 41,720 Million
Cubic Meter (MCM). None of the water sources are safe for drinking or
bathing without conventional water treatment. The
overall stage of development of ground water is low, generally in the
range of 6.29% in Bastar district to 53.99% in Dhamtari district.
However, there are few pockets of intensive development. Out of 146
blocks, stage of ground water development in 4 blocks has crossed 70%.
Gurur Block in Durg district has the highest stage of ground water
development (84.6%). Four blocks (Balod, Saja, Baramkela, and Belha)
have stages of ground water development between 60 and 70%. All other
blocks have stage of development less than 60%.
Chhattisgarh, surface water is mostly of good quality, but pollution
is increasing in major towns due to increasing urbanization. Rivers
such as Shivnath, Hasdeo, Indrawati, Kharoon etc. are found to be
polluted at different stretches due to industrial, domestic and
agricultural pollution. Among all the rivers, Hasdeo river is the most
polluted. Surface and ground
water resources in the State are disturbed due to major industrial
centers located in the State at Bhilai, Korba, Raipur, Bilaspur, and
Raigarh districts. One of the biggest steel plants of the country and
many ancillary industries are located in Bhilai. In Korba, besides a
super thermal power station, an aluminum smelter unit is also present.
Major cement plants are operating in Raipur and Bilaspur area. Thermal
power stations using coal emit vast quantities of fly ash and coal
dust .If adequate measures are not taken the deposition of these on
the surface water bodies can bring down the infiltration rate and
consequently the ground water recharge. Water used in manufacturing
industry picks up high TDS, acidity or alkalinity, heavy metals such
as Cr6+, Cd, As, Hg, Ni, Fe, and Mn. etc. Where water is
used for cooking purposes, algae inhibitors and pH adjustors are often
used. This results in high temperature (Thermal Pollution), and
increase in TDS, acidity, alkalinity etc. Contamination of
groundwater with fluoride, heavy metals, arsenic, nitrate and
brackishness has been reported in eight districts of Chhattisgarh.
Ground water level in these districts has dropped by more than four
metres in the period 1981-2000. Bhilai, Korba, Raipur, Bilaspur,
Raigarh and Sarguja are the notable districts affected by ground water
Government will develop mechanism for water resource management
including conservation of wetlands, encouragement of optimal use and
recycling of waste water, assessment and monitoring of quality of
surface and ground water and its optimal utilization and promotion of
judicious use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and implementing
measures against their disposal into water bodies. Chattisgarh
Environment Conservation Board (CECB) is involved in the preparation
of action Plan for prevention/control of pollution in streams due to
discharge of sewage into the water bodies of the State. The State
Government has initiated the Rs.6,000 million ‘Indira Gaon Ganga
Yojna’ scheme under which every village would be provided with
atleast one dependable and sustainable source of water for drinking
and other needs. The scheme also sensitizes the communities towards
the need to preserve water and avoid wastage. Under the Accelerated
Irrigation Benefit Program (AIBP), Government of India has sanctioned
a loan assistance of around Rs.3280 million for three major projects.
According to government estimates, Rs.98,870 million would be needed
to make drinking water available through out the State.
of the State are subject to enormous pressures due to the large human
and cattle population and widespread rural poverty. These pressures
are resulting in deforestation and forest degradation. The pressures
on biodiversity include population growth, settlement patterns and the
accompanying consumption levels. Medicinal Plants in the State have
been significantly disturbed by land clearing, development and
agriculture. The aquatic biodiversity of the State is under severe
threat due to climate change, heavy pollution load from industries and
run off from agricultural fields. About
645 medicinal plants are present in the State. Studies
conducted by medicinal plant experts
region have identified 31 species to be on the verge of extinction, 96
species as endangered and 70 species as precious in the State.
12% of the India’s forests are in Chhattisgarh, and 44% of the
states land is under forests. Identified as one of the richest
bio-diversity habitats, the Green State of Chhattisgarh has the
densest forests in India and above all, over 200 non-timber forest
products, with tremendous potential for value addition. The state
covers 4.4% of the total geographical area of the country. Over 0.59
lakh sq. km area in the State is under forest constituting about 44%
of its geographical area. Its neighbouring state Madhya Pradesh, has
26.9% of its entire area comprising of 83,016 sq.km for forest cover
and it constitutes about 11.0% of the country’s forest and tree
cover. Out of the total forest cover placed at 56448 Sq.Km., the
extent of dense forest is
37880 and open forest is 18568 Sq.Km. The changes in forest cover in
the year 2001 as compared to 1999 shows a decline in forest cover by
floral biodiversity is complex comprising of different species
including Aonla, , Neem , Imli , Harra , Bel , Baheda , Baibidang ,
Baichandi, Adusa, Kalihari, Safed Mulsi, Kali musli , Aloe vara ,
Lemon grass , Bixa orellana , Ashwagandha, Isabghol , Sarpa gandha ,
Malkangni , Kali haldi , Nirmali , Kuchla , Tikhur , Keokand , Kiwanch
, Sarphokha Bhuai amla , Giloy , Nagar motha , Kalmegh , Satabar ,
Bidarikand , Ananth Mul , Brahmi , Bach , Jangli haldi , Jangli piaj ,
Rasna , Chitrak, Shankpuspi
, Ratti, Tejraj , Bhojraj , Gokhaur , Bavachi, Bhragnraj , Salparni
and senna . In Chhattisgarh 1,685 specimens of different plant
species have been collected. Till now 1685 species belonging to 785
genera and 147 families have been identified and preserved in the
herbarium. Ten dominant families of Chhattisgarh are Fabaceae, Poaceae,
Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Acanthanaceae, Convulvulaceae,
Malvaceae, Rubiacaeae, Scorphulariaceae.
wild fauna consists of Tiger, Panther, Sambhar, Blue bull (Nilgai), Chinkara,
Munias, Blue king fisher, Jangli
murgi, Red Spur fall, Phakta, Ducks, Baj, Harial, Neelkanth Kabootar,
Koel, Bhura Teetar, Kala Teetar, Tree pie, Drongo, Shikara, Giddha,
Bagula, Dubchick, Wild pig, Hanuman, Langoor, Rhesus monkey,
Porcupine, Hare, Wild dogs, Jungle cat, Jackals, Hyena, Fox, Kobra,
Python, Monitor lizards, Peacock, Barlets, Bulbulis, Minivets oriolets,
Wild cat, Cheetal. Barking deer, Jackal, Sloth bear, Flying squirrel,
Crocodile, Otter and Civet.
and indirect negative impacts on forest plant and animal resources, on
ecological functions of the forests (including conservation of
biological diversity and carbon and water cycles) are caused by poorly
planned and implemented extraction of timber and non-timber products,
logging and transport roads, construction of facilities for logging
camps or for recreational activities in the forests, and by waste
accumulation. Direct and indirect impacts on human health, and on
cultural and social foundations also occur in and around areas of
active forest utilization.
in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts are based on a combination of
holistic eco-system based schemes and those specifically based on apex
key species. Some of these are in the form of programmes such as
Bio-sphere reserves, Tiger reserves, national parks and sanctuaries,
wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, deserts and mountains. Since the
conservation of an entire range of species is neither practical nor
possible, survey organizations may identify the key stone and umbrella
species. Conserving such species ensures protection of all related
species as well. Similarly, there is a need to develop models/packages
for the conservation of endemic species as well. There are three National Parks and 11 sanctuaries. Indravati
National Park is the only Tiger Reserve declared so far.
involvement of communities in forest management is now a significant
feature of national as well as state forest policy. The state has
begun community-based initiatives in executing forest
schemes/programs. A new Joint Forest Management (JFM) resolution,
specifying clear guidelines regarding formation of JFM committees,
allocation of rights and duties among the communities and sharing of
benefits to communities has already been issued in November, 2001.
There are two types of JFM committees in the state. One is Forest
Protection Committee (FPC) and the other is Village Forest Committee (VFC).
FPCs are formed in those villages which adjoin dense forests. The VFCs
are formed in those villages, which adjoin to degraded forests. JFM
committees have been formed in all the six territorial circles of the
state. There are 7787 FPC and VFC covering about 7495 villages in the
state. They cover about
48% of the total forest area of the state. The state Govt. has formed
a medicinal board in the
year 2001 to promote medicinal plant conservation in the state. The
medicinal plants board
aims at educating the people for proper identification, uses and
medicinal plants conservation. The board would also give new direction
to medicinal and herbal plant cultivation, marketing and exploitation.
The state has also formed
a State Bio-diversity Board
in the year 2001 to supervise formulation of state Bio-Diversity
Strategy and Action Plan. A state level wildlife
board has also been constituted in order to advise to state Govt.
on the matter of wildlife conservation under the wildlife Act-1972.
has the largest tribal population in central India, which is diverse
in location, origin, socio-cultural history, language, livelihood and
level of development. In Chhattisgarh, tribal concentration is in the
northeast and the southern parts of the State. The northeastern area
is home to the Oraons, Kawar, Majhi, Bharia, Agaria, Nagasia, Khairwar,
Dhanwar and Korwas, comprising districts of Surguja, Raigarh, Bilaspur
and areas of other adjoining districts. The area has a number of
primitive tribes such as Korwas and smaller groups of Baiga. The
southern area comprising Bastar and Dantewada districts have very high
tribal concentration and are populated by various tribes such as the
Gond, Bhatra, Halba, Maria and Pardhi. In terms of population, the
Gond is the largest tribe in Chhattisgarh.
Poverty and deprivation, low income for livelihood and
sustenance and loss of biodiversity and productivity have succumbed
the tribes to health hazards. Fever, jaundice, malaria, cough,
dysentry, fever, bodyache, headache,
stomachache, are the common health ailments which are the
health impacts on the tribal community in the State. The
Department of Tribal and Scheduled Castes Welfare (DTSCW) looks into
the development of tribal areas and
communities in the State. The department promotes and protects the
rights of the tribal communities in accordance with the spirit of
consultation. It also implements programs for the educational and
economic development among tribal people of the State.
is leveraging ahead to be the power hub of the nation. The
construction of hydropower plants for electric power generation in the
State (Korba, Hasdeo Bango) has altered sizable portions of land. This has disturbed the wild life
habitat and the farm land. Electric
power plants that use water for power production or cooling alter or
eliminate natural ecological and hydrological functions in aquatic
systems. These facilities affect riverine, estuarine, and marine
systems, and they have contributed significantly to aquatic species
decline. Hydroelectric dams have caused erosion along the river bed
upstream and downstream, and this has further disturbed wildlife
ecosystems and fish populations in the State.
has a potential capacity of 50,000 MW of power given its rich coal
resources. Along with Bihar and Orissa, Chhattisgarh accounts for
nearly 84 per cent of the coal reserves in the country. With an
installed capacity of 1360 MW and an average demand of 1200 MW,
Chhattisgarh is already a power surplus State. Hydro-electric power
currently accounts for nearly 8 % of the State’s electricity output.
About 121.5 MW of electricity generated in the State is from
conversion significantly impacts several areas of concern from a
health and environment point of view, including indoor and urban
pollution, acidification, climate change, and land degradation. The
combustion of biomass produces air pollutants, including carbon
monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates such as soot and ash.
Asthma is the most common non-infectious, non-smoking related chronic
respiratory disease in Chhattisgarh.
measures have been taken by the government for energy conservation.
Chhattisgarh Environment Conservaiton Board (CECB) has directed all the thermal power plants in the State to utilize fly ash as
per the provisions of the MOEF, 1999. To create awareness and
dissemination of information, in addition to several meetings at the
State Government and District Level Workshop and seminars on fly ash
utilization has been organized in the recent past. The
State government has taken up an ambitious project for
electrifying over 1253 villages in remote areas with solar energy.
Biomass power plants have been promoted by the State Government for
non-conventional energy generation. Approximately 1,00,00 Mw non
conventional energy power bas been generated through biomass power
plants between 2000 and 2002. A biomass project of 6 MW has been set
up in Bilaspur. Efforts to tap geothermal and tidal energy are also
continuing. The geothermal
fields in Tattapani in Chattisgarh are being developed for power
the onset of the industrial revolution, there has been a steady change
in the composition of the atmosphere mainly due to the combustion of
fossil fuels used for the generation of energy and transportation. Air
pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting the
developing and the developed countries alike. The effects of air
pollution on health are very complex as there are many different sources and their individual effects vary from one to the
other. Air pollutants that
are inhaled have serious impact
on human health in
the State affecting the lungs and the respiratory system. About
26.1% of children under age 5 suffer from acute respiratory disorders
(ARI) along with fever and diarrhoea.
industrial sector contributes 30% of the state’s GDP. The spur in the industrial growth has consequently led to an increase in
environmental pollution. The large scale generation of hazardous
industrial waste has imposed a huge pressure on water resources of the
State. Industrial growth also has resulted in an increase in
employment and urbanization. Large scale immigration to the State has
resulted in a huge pressure on natural resources including land, air
state has 165 large and medium scale industries with an investment of
over Rs.8,000 crores giving direct employment to over 230,000 persons.
The spur in the
industrial growth has consequently led to an increase in environmental
pollution. The major
industrial centers in the State are located at Bhilai, Korba, Raipur,
Bilaspur, and Raigarh districts. One of the biggest steel plants of
the country and many ancillary industries are located in Bhilai. In
Korba, besides a super thermal power station, an aluminum smelter unit
is also present. Major cement plants are operating in Raipur Bilaspur
air is highly polluted in many districts, especially Korba due to the
industrial activity in the district.
industrial units in the State have not constructed the Common Effluent
Treatment Plants (CETPs). Lack of planning during establishment of
industrial units towards effluent treatment and management has led to
the adverse effects of industrial effluent discharges upon receiving
water bodies. About
60% of the small and medium category industries in the State fall
under the red category. This will impose a severe threat to the
environment and has to be dealt with carefully. Industrial pollution
has led to health impacts in Rajnandgaon district in the State.
per the information available with CPCB as on 30th June
2002, out of the total major category industries numbering 16, 1 is
closed already, 14 of them have the necessary facilities for
implementation of pollution control measures. The
government encourages industries to adopt clean technologies and
processes and funds are being provided for the setting up of combined
facilities for effluent treatment and hazardous wastes. Public and
private sector industries involve themselves actively in environmental
has incurred total expenditure of about 11.43 crores for Environmental
. protection, upgradation and Pollution control measures for all its
of district wise zoning atlas for the proper sites of industries
has been taken up by the State government. Towards waste recycling and
reduction, fly ash utilization has been promoted by Chhattisgarh
Environment Conservation Board. It has also instituted the
“Environmental award” for industrial pollution control. Grasim
Cement, Rawan, Raipur is honored with Vanvasi Sant Gahira Guruji
Maharaj Chhattisgarh Environment Award-2003 for its outstanding work
for environment conservation in the industrial sector.
are 16 districts in the state, major ones being Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur,
Korba and Bastar. The
urban population of Chhattisgarh is 41.75 lakhs which is 31% of the
total population of the State. The spread of urban population also
differs in its level of concentration in the State. Raipur and Durg
account for almost half of the total urban population in Chhattisgarh.
The urban pressure has thus increased on the key districts. The rapid
urbanization along with other major problems of shelter and basic
infrastructure facilities, environmental degradation sets in. A large
quantity of waste is generated resulting in air, water and noise
pollution. There has been a tremendous pressure on the existing basic
urban services including land and waterways. In Bilaspur, an
underground sewerage line was constructed almost 20 years ago, but is
not being used, as it is not connected to houses. Similar situation
prevails in Korba, where most of the houses have individual septic
urban air in Chhattisgarh is rapidly getting polluted due to emissions
generated from various anthropogenic activities. The combustion of
fossil fuels for domestic energy needs, for power generation, in motor
vehicles and in industrial processes is the principal source of air
pollutants in urban and industrial areas. The most common air
pollutants in urban industrial environments are suspended particulate
matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), the nitrogen oxides (NOx),
carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and lead (Pb). SPM levels
have exceeded the critical limit of discharge for both Industrial and
residential areas. It is significant to mention that Korba is one
among the cities topped in the list of top ten polluted areas.
urban agglomerates generate large quantity of waste, both liquid and
solid. The district towns have not been provided with any facilities
for proper treatment/disposal of the wastes. Abandoned quarries and
local depressions are converted into land-fill sites. Septic tanks are
used for individual household. Leachate from old mine tailing and
settling ponds also causes ground water pollution. These problems are
associated with both active and abandoned mines.
is lack of sanitation in all the cities. The discharge of
untreated/partially treated wastewater in the urban centres pollute
the water resources. The toxicants have direct impact on fauna, flora
and human beings. Eutrophication has resulted due to the addition of
nutrients like phospohorus and nitrogen in rivers, lakes, ponds,
reservoirs etc. Towns like Raipur and Bilaspur have sewerage system
which suffers from lack of maintanence.
local bodies have been formed in the State for an efficient urban
planning and management. The Government is paying attention to all
aspects of urban infrastructure, including urban transport, drinking
water, sanitation and sewerage, solid waste management, street
lighting, parks and recreation areas, leisure infrastructure, and
integrated traffic flows. The
Government is considering promulgation of an Urban Infrastructure
Development Act to facilitate private sector participation. Urban
local bodies would prepare a master plan for solid waste management.
Segregation of waste into bio degradable and non-degradable at the
source of generation, enforcement of polluter pays principle with
heavy fines for public littering, slum rehabilitation and
preparation of integrated environmental management plan for
urban centres are some of the responses of the State and society
towards urban development.
Environmental pressures arise due to the increasing vehicle population in
the State. According to Directorate of Economics and Statistics, the
total number of vehicles increased from 7,12,976 (1999-2000) to
7,81,469 (2000-2001) (9.61%) and a phenomenal increase to 856,840
(2001-2002) (10.91%). The
average road density in the State is 25.5 km per100 sq.km. Districts
like Korba, Koriya, Bastar, Raigarh, Surguja and Dantewada have very
low road density and there is a need to increase road length in these
districts. There is a mismatch between road length and traffic density
which has increased due to the vehicle population. Most of the roads
are kuccha roads and they cause more emissions of pollutants due to
fuel wastage from vehicles affecting
State economy. Petrol-driven
vehicles increased at a higher rate than the diesel-driven vehicles. Motor cycles and scooters have resulted in increased emission of carbon
monoxide and hydrocarbons which are a great pressure on the
environment. They have increased the urban air pollution of the State.
pressures arise due to the increasing vehicle population in the State.
monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are the major contributors for
urban air pollution. Average CO and HC emissions of various types of
petrol-driven vehicles monitored during 1999-2003 for Bastar District
showed that the average CO and HC emissions from the passenger cars
were 4.88% and 1704 ppm, respectively, which is significantly higher
than the standards prescribed for the petrol driven four wheeler.
Increasing smoke density from the vehicles pollute the urban air and
sometimes impair vision also. Vehicular emissions and air pollution
due to transportation has adversely affected the health of the
citizens. Acute Respiratory illness dominate the State’s illness
among Children. In CG state, diarrhoea accounts for 25% of the
state’s health burden. Other diseases related to poor water,
sanitation and hygiene in the state include Malaria, Cholera,
Tuberculosis, infectious diseases Gastroenterititis, Trachoma,
Poliomyelitis and Protein-energy malnutrition. Prevelance of high
incidence of respiratory illness among the urban children is an
indication that air is getting polluted.
Environment Conservation Board (CECB) has implemented the
vehicle emission monitoring system in the State. CECB
is carrying out the Vehicle Emission Monitoring since 1.5.92 for
testing the emissions from goods transport vehicles in Raipur City in
3 locations. CECB has established Vehicle Emission Monitoring
Stations in the other districts also. Vehicle Emission Monitoring
Stations have been established in Raipur, Korba, Jagdalpur and
Bilaspur. Chhattisgarh Environment Conservation Board has installed
and commissioned Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Systems in
major industries under the World Bank aided Industrial Pollution
Control Project. Further, establishing a Continuous
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System at major towns is under
high quality of the built and natural environment of the State is well
documented and widely recognized. It has attracted a large number of
tourists. There is concern that the increase in large numbers of
visitors will exert pressure on the quality of the environment which
attracts them to the area. Future growth in the tourism and leisure
sector is expected, but if this is to happen in a sustainable way, the
issues of access and travelling within the area must be addressed.
Tourism Policy is focused on creating an unique image for the State
and to position it as an attractive destination. It aims at promoting
economically, culturally and ecologically sustainable tourism in the
state. Besides strengthening the quality and attractiveness of the
tourism experience in Chhattisgarh, it strives to preserving,
enriching and showcasing the rich and diverse cultural and ecological
heritage of the State.
is the richest State in terms of mineral wealth. Chhattisgarh State,
owing to its typical geological set up, is like a museum of minerals.
With over 28 kinds of major and minor minerals present in the State,
Chhattisgarh is the leader in terms of mineral potential among all the
States. Pressures on the environment arise due to land degradation due
to the dumps created by mining activity. There are substantial areas
under forest cover and are occupied by tribal communities and the
mining projects have immensely affected their habitation. Rehabilitation
measures are still under progress for the project affected persons at
the Boda Daldali mines in Kawardha district and at the Mainpat mines
in Sarguja district.
mining operations, a lot of dust and fumes are added in the air and
they enter the human body and the area of its influence is greatly
increased in summer when strong winds are quite common. The noise
level in the open cast mines of Korba has gone up to 90 decibels. It
should be brought down to 45 decibels as residential localities may be
affected. The water
stored in open spaces in depressions and ponds contains harmful
components in many cases. Such waters are hard, contain more solids,
dust particles and microscopic organisms which introduce a number of
diseases in the long run and cause health hazards. Worm infections,
jaundice, dysentery and skin diseases are quite common in the
population of Korba district.
and Uranium mining has caused serious health impacts across the State.
The Koudiska village in Rajnandgaon district has been found to contain
higher levels of arsenic. A few of tubewells and dug-wells contain
water with very high levels of arsenic and people drinking water from
these wells suffer from arsenical skin lesions. Out
of the total number of adults and children examined at random, 42% and
9%, respectively have arsenical skin lesions. 75% of the people have
arsenic in the hair above the toxic level and 91% in the nail above
the normal level. During mining operations, a lot of dust and
fumes are added in the air and they enter the human body and the area
of its influence is greatly increased in summer when strong winds are
quite common. The noise level in the open cast mines of Korba has gone
up to 90 decibels. It should be brought down to 45 decibels as
residential localities may be affected.
The water stored in open spaces in depressions and ponds
contains harmful components in may cases. Such waters are hard,
contain more solids, dust particles and microscopic organisms which
introduce a number of diseases in the long run and cause health
hazards. Worm infections, jaundice, dysentery and skin diseases are
quite common in the population of Korba district.
Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) is actively involved in
environmental protection. NMDC has started afforestation on a planned
pattern in consultation with Divisional Forest Officer (Social
forestry) of concerned areas with the objectives of increasing the
density around the project and township,
stabilisation of degraded lands and waste dumps for preventing soil
erosion, rehabilitation of mined out areas, improving the condition of
the catchment areas and stream courses and aesthetic look of the
30% of the total burden of health in Chhattisgarh is attributable to
environmental causes. A high prevalence of malnutrition; a high burden of communicable diseases
in children and adults that includes malaria, water-borne diseases,
tuberculosis and leprosy; an exploitative private system of healthcare
are the main pressures faced by the health sector of the State.
continues to be a major health problem with 13, 000 cases reported in
2000. The cases reported upto October 2001 are 14.6 per cent less than
those reported in the corresponding period. In CG state,
diarrhoea accounts for 25% of the state’s health burden. Other
diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene in the state
include Malaria, Cholera, Tuberculosis, infectious diseases
Gastroenterititis, Trachoma, Poliomyelitis and Protein-energy
malnutrition. . In
Chhattisgarh, 26% of children under the age 3 years suffer from fever,
the same 26% children with ARI and 21% have diarrhoea. About 62% ill
with ARI are taken to health facility compared to 57% in Madhya
Pradesh. About 59% of children ill with diarrhoea are taken to medical
facility or health care provider.
water contamination with arsenic has shown severe health impacts on
the population of Rajnandgaon district of the State. Koudiska village
is severely affected. About 42%
of adults having arsenic skin lesions. About 75 % of people having
arsenic above toxic level in hair and 91% of people having arsenic
above toxic level in nail
National Anti Malaria Program (NAMP) is being implemented all over the
country and 100% central funding is provided to tribal districts in
Chhattisgarh, where a five year enhanced malaria control project with
assistance of world bank is in operation. Centrally Sponsored disease
control programmes for the control of Malaria, Tuberculosis, Leprosy,
Blindness, Aids, etc. Danish support has been extended to the new
State as Chhattisgarh Basic Health Services Programme (CGBHSP).
Leprosy Elimination Programs have been successfully implemented in the
State. National Leprosy Elimination Program (NLEP) services have been
successfully integrated into general health services. Arsenic
contamination of ground water would be prevented by setting up small
scale treatment plants at the panchayat level and the affected
population have to be treated immediately.
report gives the following recommendations
and allied sectors
of sustainable farming including organic farming and crop rotation
use of bio-fertilizer and bio-pesticides.
respect of fisheries, multipronged approach is essential to attain
a sustainable aquaculture for the State.
management of fisheries will lead to an environmental friendly
fish farming in the State. Unwanted and undesirable fishes from
the pond must be removed. In few cases lime treatment desired.
Species, numbers and ratio of carps need to be maintained. Apart
from this, supplementary feed to fishes needs to be given.
respect of horticulture, cultivation of crops like banana with
proper drainage can not only contribute to the economy of the
villagers, but also helps in maintaining soil productivity thorugh
out the year.
of crops should be based on the agro-climatic conditions. This
would lead to successful horticultural practice in the State.
Development of horticulture on State mission mode can change the
scenario of the economic conditions of poor villagers.
must be studied. Along with this, the changes in sanitation
wastes must also be studied and promoted.
to reduce the level of arsenic in ground water.
to conserve water resource
help in conserving ground
habitats of the State need an immediate survey and analysis. A
comprehensive Geographical information systems for ecological
habitats should be developed.
should be made to conserve disappearing medicinal and herbal
plants in the State.
communities should be educated on conservation and sustainable
utilization of bio-resources and provide incentive mechanisms to
local communities to protect and preserve traditional knowledge,
innovations and practices. These incentives can be in the form of
a part of the profits accruing from the commercialization of these
resources and knowledge systems.
techiniques of ex-situ conservation like “tissue culture” and
biotechnology should be promoted for the preservation of
endangered and threatened species of wild flora and fauna.
Planting of exotic floral species and introduction of exotic
faunal species should be avoided.
Local communities should be
mobilized through eco-awareness generation and information, exposure
visits, technical training, skills training and specialist studies.
Local institutions have to be
developed and training has to be imparted in participatory resource
appraisal and micro-level planning, monitoring and evaluation for
local leaders and project staff.
Tribal masses should be taught
to identify biological resources of importance for conservation and
biodiversity and regulate their use.
Women should be involved in capacity building and
training programs and they should be nominated to decision making
Encourage the use of non-conventional and renewable sources of
energy such as small hydro, wind, biomass and solar energy.
Practice environmental friendly techniques of electricity
generation to ensure that wild life are not disturbed due to heavy
noise generated in conventional systems.
Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) should be constructed in
the Industrial growth centres.
in place should be created for the proper storage of solid and
hazardous waste generated by industries.
on more research initiatives to reduce the adverse impact of
industrial discharges and emissions on environment
on a regular basis water quality in degraded zones, and air
quality in disturbed areas should be taken up at the district
participation should be encouraged towards environmental
protection and conservation in industrial planning and development
should be proper collection and storage of municipal solid wastes
least one common waste treatment facility should be set up in each
district for solid waste handling and management
Segregation of wastes should be practiced at the collection
awareness campaigns on hygiene and solid waste disposal should be
conducted in all the urban centres through urban local bodies
biomedical waste facility should be set up at every main city and
district to treat and dispose biomedical waste in a safe manner
local bodies should take initiatives to encourage public
participation in maintaining a healthy and a hygienic urban
The government should accelerate the construction of rail mass
transit, ring road, suburban local road network and other transport
facilities to decrease the transit time and distance, thereby
improving the quality of environment through lesser vehicle emission.
Ambient air quality monitoring program initiated by
Chhattiisgarh Environment Conservation Borad (CECB) has been
implemented only in few districts like Bilaspur, Korba, Raipur,
Dantewada and Jagdalpur. It should be implemented in all districts.
Vehicle Emission Monitoring
Stations have been established in Raipur, Korba, Jagdalpur and
Bilaspur by CECB. Establishment of monitoring stations at all
districts and legislation will reduce the severity of air pollution
prevailing in states like Durg and Rajnandgoan.
Most of the kuccha
roads cause more emissions of pollutants due to fuel wastage from
vehicles. They should be converted to pucca roads.
Eco-tourism should be promoted to conserve ecological resources
of the State
Wildlife tourism should be encouraged towards the appreciation
of floral and faunal heritage of the state and for the purpose of
setting up of wild life destinations.
The Government should ensure that exploration and mining
activities are undertaken by ensuring that mining sites are
rehabilitated according to environmental standards.
Environmental impact assessment of all mining projects in
environmentally sensitive areas should be ensured.
Regular monitoring of major mining areas
On-site mineral beneficiation should be encouraged to reduce
impact of transportation, processing and utilization
Suitable abondandoned pits should be used for recharge of
Periodic water quality monitoring and chlorination of drinking
water should be implemented in village panchayats to prevent water
Mass awareness programs and campaigns through press, television
and radio talks should be conducted to create awareness among the
populace regarding the ‘Do’s and Don’ts’ regarding diseases
including diarrohoea, gastroenteritits and malaria.
Measures should be taken to initiate studies related to indoor
air pollution and Health Impact.
The effects of arsenic on health should be prevented by setting
up small scale treatment plants at the panchayat level and the
affected population have to be treated immediately.